Next in playlist:

Austin Evans
Is a $750 Gaming PC Worth It?
Neil deGrasse Tyson: Life on Europa, Jupiter's Moons, Ice Fishing and Racket Sports
Where there is water, there is life—and Europa’s got water alright: scientists believe it has twice the volume of Earth’s oceans swirling beneath its kilometers-thick ice crust. A moon in Jupiter’s massive orbit, Europa has captivated astrophysicists, including Neil deGrasse Tyson, because it has completely blown open the borders in the search for life in our universe. Europa is well outside of the life-supporting “Goldilocks Zone”. Tyson explains how liquid water can exist in such a frozen part of our solar system, and how engineers might approach getting through all that ice to potentially come face to face/membrane with life, whether simple or complex. It won’t be too long before NASA’s ‘Europa Clipper’ mission makes its move to investigate the habitability of the icy moon: it will head for Europa in the 2020s. Tyson's new book is Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.

Read more at BigThink.com: http://bigthink.com/videos/neil-degrasse-tyson-life-on-europa-jupiters-icy-moon

Follow Big Think here:
YouTube: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BigThinkdotcom
Twitter: https://twitter.com/bigthink

Transcript: Nobody doesn't love Europa. Let me back up.

When we think of places you might find life we typically think of the Goldilocks zone around a star where water would be liquid in its natural state, and if you get a little too close to the star heat would evaporate the water and you don't have it anymore, it's gone. Too far away, it would freeze and neither of those states of H2O are useful to life as we know it. We need liquid water. So you can establish this green zone, this habitable zone, this Goldilocks zone where if you find a planet orbiting there: hey, good chance it could have liquid water. Let's look there first for life as we know it.

Now, it turns out that this source of heat, of course, is traceable to the sun, and if you go farther out everything would or should be frozen, all other things being equal. But Europa, a moon of Jupiter sitting well outside of the Goldilocks zone, is kept warm. Not from energy sources traceable to the sun, but from what we call the tidal forces of Jupiter itself.

So Jupiter and surrounding moons are actually pumping energy into Europa. And how does it do that? As Europa orbits Jupiter its shape changes. It's not fundamentally different from tides rising and falling on Earth. The shape of the water system of the earth is responding to tidal forces of the moon and when you do that to a solid object, the solid object is stressing and because of this, a consequence of this is that you are pumping energy into the object.

It is no different from when you say—anyone who's familiar with racquet sports, indoor racquet sports, it could be racquetball or squash—you say, “Let's warm up the ball before we start playing.” You want to hit it around a few times. You are literally warming up the ball. It's not just simply, “Let's get loose,” it’s, you are literally warming up the ball. How? You are distorting it every time you smack it and then the resilience of the ball pops it back into shape, and every time you do that, every smack, you're pumping energy into the ball. That's not fundamentally different from what's going on in orbit around Jupiter.

So you have this frozen world Europa, completely frozen on its surface, but you look at the surface and there are cracks in the ice. There are ridges in the ice where there's a crack and it's shifted and then re-froze. So this ridge has a discontinuity in the crack and it continues in another place. So what this tells you is that Europa cannot be completely frozen because if it were nothing would be moving.

You look at the surface of Europa, the frozen surface, there are like ice chunks that are like shifted and re-frozen and shifted again. It looks just like if you fly over the Arctic Ocean. Fly over the Arctic Ocean in the winter, these are ice sheets that are breaking and re-freezing all the time. It's the same signature as that.

So all of us are convinced that beneath this icy surface is an ocean of liquid water and there's no reason to think it wouldn’t have been liquid for billions of years. On Earth, where we find liquid water we find life. Wherever we find liquid water we find life.Even places like the Dead Sea—why did anybody call it a Dead Sea? Because the microscope hadn't yet been invented. And sure maybe there's no macroscopic vertebrate fishes, but microbes have no problems thriving in practically any condition under which you would find liquid water.
TODAY



Wranglestar
2017-12-11 01:41
They Closed Our Account
They Closed Our Account
YESTERDAY
MindYourDecisions
2017-12-10 21:34
Delightfully Fruitful Problem From The Norwegian Math Olympiad
Delightfully Fruitful Problem From The Norwegian Math Olympiad
MrTeslonian
2017-12-10 19:31
Neodymium Magnet sluice box, the
Neodymium Magnet sluice box, the "GolDymium Sluice Box", Has no riffles!
RedKB
2017-12-10 16:11
Top 5 Deceptively Hard Puzzles
Top 5 Deceptively Hard Puzzles
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-10 15:00
How To Make INVISIBLE Ink (Secret Messages)
How To Make INVISIBLE Ink (Secret Messages)
The Royal Institution
2017-12-10 13:18
Sign Language in a Mirror - with Charles Stirling
Sign Language in a Mirror - with Charles Stirling
TWiT Netcast Network
2017-12-10 03:46
2018 Nissan Leaf First Look - All-Electric Car
2018 Nissan Leaf First Look - All-Electric Car
2017-12-09



BigcLiveDotCom
2017-12-09 20:18
Inside a proper (Utility company) LED work light.
Inside a proper (Utility company) LED work light.
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-09 20:03
Handy Tech Under $100 – Old is New Again
Handy Tech Under $100 – Old is New Again
Wranglestar
2017-12-09 19:07
I'm Sorry For What I'm About To Do
I'm Sorry For What I'm About To Do
AvE
2017-12-09 16:25
BIG COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE BOOST | No tripped breakers!
BIG COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE BOOST | No tripped breakers!
Austin Evans
2017-12-09 16:07
Building the Ultimate Nintendo Switch
Building the Ultimate Nintendo Switch
Big Think
2017-12-09 15:00
How to Predict a Company Crisis: Uber, Lego, Marvel Comics
How to Predict a Company Crisis: Uber, Lego, Marvel Comics
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-09 15:00
What Does DRY ICE Do in a Metal Foundry?
What Does DRY ICE Do in a Metal Foundry?
NightHawkInLight
2017-12-09 14:59
How To Make A Bottle Bass Guitar
How To Make A Bottle Bass Guitar
The Royal Institution
2017-12-09 11:58
Chameleon Communications - with Sir Colin Blakemore
Chameleon Communications - with Sir Colin Blakemore
CNET TV
2017-12-09 07:21
Are more powerful batteries coming to the 2018 iPhone? (Apple Byte Extra Crunchy, Ep. 113)
Are more powerful batteries coming to the 2018 iPhone? (Apple Byte Extra Crunchy, Ep. 113)
Electronics Engineering
2017-12-09 04:57
eevBLAB #42 - Patreon FAIL!
eevBLAB #42 - Patreon FAIL!
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-09 03:39
Disappointed in AMD - WAN Show Dec. 8 2017
Disappointed in AMD - WAN Show Dec. 8 2017
TWiT Netcast Network
2017-12-09 02:48
DoJ Vs. Microsoft -- Round 4
DoJ Vs. Microsoft -- Round 4
2017-12-08
Electronics Engineering
2017-12-08 23:27
EEVblog #1046 - Mysterious Digital Voltage Doubling
EEVblog #1046 - Mysterious Digital Voltage Doubling
CNET TV
2017-12-08 22:08
LG LSE4617ST induction stove review
LG LSE4617ST induction stove review
Sci Show
2017-12-08 22:00
There Are Crystal Mirrors Hidden in Scallop Eyes
There Are Crystal Mirrors Hidden in Scallop Eyes
The Khan Academy
2017-12-08 21:12
Unites States v  Lopez
Unites States v Lopez
TEDTalks
2017-12-08 20:36
How to transform apocalypse fatigue into action on global warming | Per Espen Stoknes
How to transform apocalypse fatigue into action on global warming | Per Espen Stoknes
NASA Television
2017-12-08 19:39
Don't Miss the Geminid Meteor Shower, Peaking on Dec. 13
Don't Miss the Geminid Meteor Shower, Peaking on Dec. 13
Computerphile
2017-12-08 19:32
Anti Bank-Fraud Technology - Computerphile
Anti Bank-Fraud Technology - Computerphile
The Khan Academy
2017-12-08 19:14
McCulloch vs  Maryland
McCulloch vs Maryland
TEDTalks
2017-12-08 16:15
Why do I make art? To build time capsules for my heritage | Kayla Briët
Why do I make art? To build time capsules for my heritage | Kayla Briët
NASA Goddard
2017-12-08 15:14
Can Data from Space Save Dolphins?
Can Data from Space Save Dolphins?
3Blue1Brown
2017-12-08 15:04
The hardest problem on the hardest test
The hardest problem on the hardest test
Tested
2017-12-08 15:00
PROJECTIONS, Episode 33: Rift Core 2.0 + Front Defense: Heroes!
PROJECTIONS, Episode 33: Rift Core 2.0 + Front Defense: Heroes!
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-08 15:00
How To Build An Infinity Mirror
How To Build An Infinity Mirror
Henry Segerman
2017-12-08 14:54
Branched scissor mechanisms
Branched scissor mechanisms
Mike and Lauren
2017-12-08 13:20
"Stupid Strong" CNC Build - PART 2 - Z AXIS COMPONENTS
Matthias Wandel
2017-12-08 12:30
How small a hole can a mouse get through?  Experiments.
How small a hole can a mouse get through? Experiments.
The Royal Institution
2017-12-08 11:59
Simulating Tastes and Smells Using a Digital Lollipop - with Danielle George
Simulating Tastes and Smells Using a Digital Lollipop - with Danielle George
CNET TV
2017-12-08 10:02
Photo gift ideas you can make from your phone
Photo gift ideas you can make from your phone
TWiT Netcast Network
2017-12-08 02:50
Lost Einsteins and Tech Innovation
Lost Einsteins and Tech Innovation
2017-12-07
TEDTalks
2017-12-07 23:38
I don't want children -- stop telling me I'll change my mind | Christen Reighter
I don't want children -- stop telling me I'll change my mind | Christen Reighter
Sci Show
2017-12-07 22:00
Airplanes and Other Man-Made Cloud Machines
Airplanes and Other Man-Made Cloud Machines
Electronics Engineering
2017-12-07 21:56
EEVblog #1045 - How To Drive an LCD
EEVblog #1045 - How To Drive an LCD
NASA Television
2017-12-07 21:17
2017 - The Year @NASA
2017 - The Year @NASA
The Khan Academy
2017-12-07 19:47
Federal and State powers and the 10th and 14th Amendments
Federal and State powers and the 10th and 14th Amendments
AvE
2017-12-07 19:40
Belt Grinder OVERDRIVE! | HOW?
Belt Grinder OVERDRIVE! | HOW?
AsapSCIENCE
2017-12-07 19:00
The 11 Greatest Threats To Humanity
The 11 Greatest Threats To Humanity
Big Think
2017-12-07 18:00
Why People Cheat on Their Partners | Esther Perel
Why People Cheat on Their Partners | Esther Perel
Standpmaths
2017-12-07 17:41
Strictly Come Dancing is Strictly Unfair
Strictly Come Dancing is Strictly Unfair
Cody´s Lab
2017-12-07 16:20
Making Ice Cream Outside With A Mixer
Making Ice Cream Outside With A Mixer
BigcLiveDotCom
2017-12-07 16:04
A look at three different energy saver plugs.
A look at three different energy saver plugs.
I Like To Make Stuff
2017-12-07 16:00
Decorate a Christmas Tree with a Candy Cane Cannon
Decorate a Christmas Tree with a Candy Cane Cannon
Tested
2017-12-07 15:00
Adam Savage's LEGO Han Solo Blaster!
Adam Savage's LEGO Han Solo Blaster!
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-07 15:00
What Does Cake Batter Do In A Vacuum Chamber?
What Does Cake Batter Do In A Vacuum Chamber?
Numberphile
2017-12-07 14:41
Don Bradman's Duck - Numberphile
Don Bradman's Duck - Numberphile
Android Authority
2017-12-07 14:36
Snapdragon 835 Laptops: 22 Hours of Battery Life!
Snapdragon 835 Laptops: 22 Hours of Battery Life!
The Royal Institution
2017-12-07 12:02
How Encryption Keys Work - with Chris Bishop
How Encryption Keys Work - with Chris Bishop
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-07 08:48
Did ANYONE ask for this?... - Blackberry Motion Classic Unboxing
Did ANYONE ask for this?... - Blackberry Motion Classic Unboxing
Tested
2017-12-07 08:00
Christmas Light Wars - This is Only a Test 427 - 12/7/17
Christmas Light Wars - This is Only a Test 427 - 12/7/17
Android Authority
2017-12-07 06:08
Snapdragon 845 Announced: What You Need To Know!
Snapdragon 845 Announced: What You Need To Know!
The Verge
2017-12-07 04:44
Black Girl Nerds Creator Jamie Broadnax and Actress Grace Gummer on the Mr. Robot Digital After Show
Black Girl Nerds Creator Jamie Broadnax and Actress Grace Gummer on the Mr. Robot Digital After Show
MindYourDecisions
2017-12-07 02:10
I WAS WRONG! The Kite Problem Correct Proof
I WAS WRONG! The Kite Problem Correct Proof
BigcLiveDotCom
2017-12-07 02:04
William Osman has lost his house to a wildfire.
William Osman has lost his house to a wildfire.
CNET TV
2017-12-07 00:53
Amazon Prime Video finally comes to Apple TV (Apple Byte)
Amazon Prime Video finally comes to Apple TV (Apple Byte)
2017-12-06
TWiT Netcast Network
2017-12-06 22:40
Jono Bacon and The Art of Community
Jono Bacon and The Art of Community
Sci Show
2017-12-06 22:00
Sex Research: SciShow Talk Show
Sex Research: SciShow Talk Show
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-06 19:59
Gaming in 4K - Upgrade or Buy New?
Gaming in 4K - Upgrade or Buy New?
The Khan Academy
2017-12-06 19:17
Enumerated and implied powers of the US Federal Government
Enumerated and implied powers of the US Federal Government
MAKE Magazine
2017-12-06 18:59
The Best CNC Router for  2018: The CNC Routerparts Benchtop
The Best CNC Router for 2018: The CNC Routerparts Benchtop
NASA Goddard
2017-12-06 18:13
Seeing the Sun in 1,000 different colors with NASA’s TSIS-1
Seeing the Sun in 1,000 different colors with NASA’s TSIS-1
NASA Television
2017-12-06 18:12
Space Station's Expandable Habitat Gets Extended Mission
Space Station's Expandable Habitat Gets Extended Mission
Big Think
2017-12-06 18:00
Why Casting “Bigots” Out Doesn’t Move America Forward | Van Jones
Why Casting “Bigots” Out Doesn’t Move America Forward | Van Jones
Marques Brownlee
2017-12-06 17:24
Portrait Mode: Explained!
Portrait Mode: Explained!
TEDTalks
2017-12-06 17:16
How the military fights climate change | David Titley
How the military fights climate change | David Titley
Minute Earth
2017-12-06 17:09
Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
Vsauce
2017-12-06 17:07
The Human Lab Rat - Mind Field S2
The Human Lab Rat - Mind Field S2
Vsauce
2017-12-06 17:07
Digital Drugs - Mind Field S2
Digital Drugs - Mind Field S2
Vsauce
2017-12-06 17:05
Interrogation - Mind Field S2 (Ep 3)
Interrogation - Mind Field S2 (Ep 3)
Vsauce
2017-12-06 17:04
Mind Field Season 2 - Official Trailer
Mind Field Season 2 - Official Trailer
Wranglestar
2017-12-06 16:45
50 Tools You Need To Survive Life | 31 - 40
50 Tools You Need To Survive Life | 31 - 40
NASA Goddard
2017-12-06 16:06
Lasers Fired At NASA's Parker Solar Probe
Lasers Fired At NASA's Parker Solar Probe
Tested
2017-12-06 15:00
Tested at the BALLS 2017 Rocket Launch Event!
Tested at the BALLS 2017 Rocket Launch Event!
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-06 15:00
DIY Rocket Launch Pad and Ignitors
DIY Rocket Launch Pad and Ignitors
The Royal Institution
2017-12-06 12:00
How Stick Insects Use Camouflage - with Richard Dawkins
How Stick Insects Use Camouflage - with Richard Dawkins
Mike and Lauren
2017-12-06 11:49
How to Start (and Quit) a Side Hustle in 24 Hours
How to Start (and Quit) a Side Hustle in 24 Hours
Electronics Engineering
2017-12-06 05:45
Demonstrating Creation of a Xamarin C# Multiplatform Calculator App
Demonstrating Creation of a Xamarin C# Multiplatform Calculator App
CNET TV
2017-12-06 02:30
HP Envy X2 and Asus NovaGo review
HP Envy X2 and Asus NovaGo review
The Khan Academy
2017-12-06 01:41
Federalism in the United States
Federalism in the United States
2017-12-05
Sci Show
2017-12-05 22:00
Why Don't Fire Hydrants Freeze and Explode?
Why Don't Fire Hydrants Freeze and Explode?
TEDTalks
2017-12-05 21:35
The Housing First approach to homelessness | Lloyd Pendleton
The Housing First approach to homelessness | Lloyd Pendleton
Wranglestar
2017-12-05 21:08
Who Builds The Best Splitting AXE? Youll Be Surpised
Who Builds The Best Splitting AXE? Youll Be Surpised
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-05 20:00
The ULTIMATE Macro Pad? - Elgato Stream Deck Review
The ULTIMATE Macro Pad? - Elgato Stream Deck Review
Computerphile
2017-12-05 18:24
The Anonymisation Problem - Computerphile
The Anonymisation Problem - Computerphile
Big Think
2017-12-05 18:00
Why Being Different at Work Is Risky Business: Diversity, Stereotyping, and Success
Why Being Different at Work Is Risky Business: Diversity, Stereotyping, and Success
Tested
2017-12-05 16:54
Antique Malls - Still Untitled: The Adam Savage Project - 12/5/17
Antique Malls - Still Untitled: The Adam Savage Project - 12/5/17
Android Authority
2017-12-05 15:23
Honor View 10 (a.k.a Honor V10) Hands On
Honor View 10 (a.k.a Honor V10) Hands On
Android Authority
2017-12-05 14:39
Honor 7X Review: Bezel less on a Budget
Honor 7X Review: Bezel less on a Budget
BigcLiveDotCom
2017-12-05 14:22
9-Lite.  An early DIY slot machine from my past.
9-Lite. An early DIY slot machine from my past.
The Verge
2017-12-05 14:00
These exoskeletons can help prevent worker injury
These exoskeletons can help prevent worker injury
Henders 007
2017-12-05 08:28
Tim's 2017/2018 Christmas Pack
Tim's 2017/2018 Christmas Pack
TWiT Netcast Network
2017-12-05 02:33
The Best Portrait Mode Smartphone
The Best Portrait Mode Smartphone
The Khan Academy
2017-12-05 01:57
Impeachment
Impeachment
2017-12-04
Computer World
2017-12-04 22:06
Tech Talk: Uber hack, Google tracks, AWS packs (in China) ... and Firefox is back
Tech Talk: Uber hack, Google tracks, AWS packs (in China) ... and Firefox is back
Sci Show
2017-12-04 22:00
The Last Major Smallpox Outbreak in America
The Last Major Smallpox Outbreak in America
Sixty Symbols
2017-12-04 21:58
The Halifax Explosion - Sixty Symbols
The Halifax Explosion - Sixty Symbols
Computer World
2017-12-04 21:39
How to move data between your Android phone and computer
How to move data between your Android phone and computer
CNET TV
2017-12-04 20:34
Safer streaming for kids on Netflix and YouTube
Safer streaming for kids on Netflix and YouTube
Henders 007
2017-12-04 19:50
Ruford the Dog
Ruford the Dog
NASA Television
2017-12-04 19:45
Pizza Night on the Space Station!
Pizza Night on the Space Station!
Big Think
2017-12-04 18:00
Why America Spies on Allies, Enemies, and Itself | Barry Posen
Why America Spies on Allies, Enemies, and Itself | Barry Posen
Austin Evans
2017-12-04 17:51
The $800 Surface Killer
The $800 Surface Killer
Wranglestar
2017-12-04 17:05
Tractor Does Burnout
Tractor Does Burnout
Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
2017-12-04 16:06
How To Make GREEN Flash Powder
How To Make GREEN Flash Powder
Wranglestar
2017-12-04 15:56
The Strangest Axe Ever Made!
The Strangest Axe Ever Made!
TEDTalks
2017-12-04 15:34
What I learned serving time for a crime I didn't commit | Teresa Njoroge
What I learned serving time for a crime I didn't commit | Teresa Njoroge
Tested
2017-12-04 15:00
Glen English's Scratch-Built Motorcycle Replicas
Glen English's Scratch-Built Motorcycle Replicas
Cody´s Lab
2017-12-04 14:45
Do Very Small Rocks Float On Water?
Do Very Small Rocks Float On Water?
Android Authority
2017-12-04 14:32
HTC U11 Life (with HTC Sense) Review
HTC U11 Life (with HTC Sense) Review
The Royal Institution
2017-12-04 12:00
Trying Out Battery Powered Welding - with Saiful Islam
Trying Out Battery Powered Welding - with Saiful Islam
Android Authority
2017-12-04 08:51
Samsung Galaxy S9: What we hope & expect to see
Samsung Galaxy S9: What we hope & expect to see
Linus Tech Tips
2017-12-04 08:34
Razer FINALLY Sent their new Phone - Classic Unboxing
Razer FINALLY Sent their new Phone - Classic Unboxing
«« Previous page

Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Call to undefined function mysql_close() in /var/www/vhosts/scienceheap.com/httpdocs/modules/db.php:101 Stack trace: #0 /var/www/vhosts/scienceheap.com/httpdocs/modules/page.php(156): DSM_db->disconnect() #1 /var/www/vhosts/scienceheap.com/httpdocs/index.php(286): DSM_page->load_footer() #2 {main} thrown in /var/www/vhosts/scienceheap.com/httpdocs/modules/db.php on line 101